CUSCO: Cusco is the historical capital of Peru and the capital of the Inca Civilization called Tahuantinsuyo. The colonial time also shows us the highlight and important religious constructions lifted on the solid Inca foundations and walls. It has many stone Inca buildings and it's the main tourist center. It was declared Cultural and Monumental City of the World Patrimony by UNESCO in 1983.

Cusco(QOSQO), means center or navel of the World, and it is because its geographical location it was the center of the wonderful Empire of the Incas, the only society of the old world that was able to be integrated with similar characters to those of the modern State, in fact, it had well integrated its four big regions that formed it: Chinchaysuyu, Antinsuyu, Qollasuyu and Contisuyu.

The Incan foundation is attributed to Manqo Qhapaq, right at the beginning of his ruling period in the early 1200s, it was started around the Square of Hauqaypata (current Square of Weapons) and it consisted in two sections Hanan Qosqo (the upper section) and Hurin Qosqo (the lower section). The marvelous Inka constructions admirably assembled, were destroyed by the Spaniards in order to build their colonial palaces and churches, which give Cusco a very unique style of constructions in the world.

The Department of the Cusco is located in the S.E. region of the Peruvian territory, between the Andean Region and the Amazon Plain.

North: Ucayali and Junín; East: Madre de Dios and Puno; South: Puno and Arequipa and West, Apurimac and Ayacucho.

Extension: 72,104, 41 Km2

Population: Population of Cusco is about 450,000.

Population of the Department of Cusco: 1,158,142 inhabitants

Provinces: (13)
Acomayo, Anta, Calca, Canas, Canchis, Chumbivilcas, Cusco, Espinar, La Convencion, Paruro, Paucartarnbo, Quispicanchi, and Urubamba.

Agricultural production: In the high forest: fruit, tea, coffee, cocoa, sugar cane and chestnut trees. In the valleys: corn, potatoes, wheat, barley, beans, lime beans, quinua, kiwicha, cañigua, olluco, fruit, and products of every day use.

Mining production: Copper, gold, nickel, cobalt. The gigantic natural gas reserve of Camisea is the most important energetic discovery in Peru of the last twenty years.

Livestock production: cattle, sheep, pigs and cameloids (Alpaca, llama, huanaco and vicuña).

Fishing: Trout, pejerrey.(white fish), etc.

Location and Altitude:
The City of Cusco is at 13° 30'15'' south latitude, and at the 71°05'33' of longitude west from ( meridinian of Greenwich); it is located in the central part of the department of the same name, in Peru. The altitude is 11000 feet (3390 ms) above sea level. (Referring landmark: the Main Square of Cusco).

Population: Approx. 500,000 inhabitants.

The climate of Cusco is generally dry and temperate. There are two distinct seasons in Cusco the dry season which is from April to September, sunny days and chilly nights and average temperature of 55°F (13ºC). This period is recommended for visits to Cusco.

The wet season is from October to March, with an average temperature of 65ºF (18 ºC) with brief periods of rain during the day.

Health: Soroche or altitude sickness is to be taken very seriously by the visitor. It is best to rest the first day and to consume light foods and abundant liquids. Warm clothes are necessary at night. Solar protective lotions and hats are necessary during the day.

Cusco, once called the Puma City has a singular location, it is in the center of the historical area of Cusco. Two summits are its´ eternal watchtowers: to the north, the Snow capped Salkantay mountain and to the South, the Ausangate. Mountain. High mountains and hills surround the city: Saqsaywaman, Pukamoqo (on whose summit the Cristo Blanco statue watches over the city. It was donated by the Palestinian Arab colony in 1944).


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